Understanding the Different Types of Floods and Mitigation Strategies: The Role of FLOPRES
Date: January 20, 2024

Floods, a formidable natural disaster, come in various forms and can cause extensive damage. To effectively mitigate these disasters, understanding the different types of floods and their causes is crucial. This is where initiatives like the FLOPRES project play a vital role. FLOPRES, focusing on regions like Slovakia and Poland, develops integrated solutions for flood modeling, forecasting, and implementing nature-based solutions for flood mitigation.

The Growing Need for Flood Awareness and Preparedness

In an era where climate change is intensifying weather patterns, the risk of floods has become more unpredictable and severe. Floods not only disrupt lives and livelihoods but also have long-term environmental and economic impacts. Recognizing this, the FLOPRES project aims to enhance flood resilience through advanced research, innovative technology, and community engagement. By understanding the various flood types, from riverine to groundwater floods, FLOPRES tailors its approach to effectively address the unique challenges posed by each. This knowledge-driven and adaptive approach is essential for safeguarding communities and ecosystems against the increasing threat of floods.

Image source: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/3572360.stm  

There exists three types of floods:

  1. River – Fluvial floods
  2. Surface – Pluvial floods 
  3. Coastal or Surge floods

Fluvial Floods

Description: A fluvial flood occurs when water levels in rivers, lakes, or streams rise significantly, often due to excessive rainfall or snowmelt, causing overflow onto the surrounding land.

Image source: https://zulkarnainhassan.com/2022/01/30/types-of-floods-fluvial-pluvial-and-coastal-floods/ 

FLOPRES and IoT Mitigation: The FLOPRES project, along with the use of IoT water level sensors, plays a crucial role in mitigating river floods. These sensors provide real-time data on water levels, enabling early warning systems to predict potential flooding. The project also incorporates this data into flood models, considering historical and forecasted precipitation, current river levels, soil and terrain conditions. This approach allows for timely evacuation and resource mobilization, especially in areas where floodwaters rise gradually or where rapid floods are expected due to the terrain.

Pluvial Floods: Flash Floods and Surface Water

Description: Pluvial floods, including surface water and flash floods, occur independently of an overflowing water body, typically triggered by intense rainfall. It’s a misconception that floods only occur near water bodies; in reality, pluvial floods can happen anywhere, whether in urban or rural areas.

Image source: https://zulkarnainhassan.com/2022/01/30/types-of-floods-fluvial-pluvial-and-coastal-floods/

FLOPRES and IoT Mitigation:

  • Surface Water Floods: In urban areas, IoT sensors can detect when drainage systems are overwhelmed, enabling quick response and mitigation efforts. FLOPRES integrates these data into urban planning, focusing on improving drainage and reducing flood impact.
  • Flash Floods: For flash floods, characterized by their rapid onset and high velocity, FLOPRES utilizes IoT sensors for immediate detection and alert systems. This real-time monitoring is vital for initiating prompt emergency response in affected areas.

Coastal Floods: Storm Surges

Description: Coastal floods occur due to seawater inundation, often due to intense windstorms coinciding with high tide (storm surges) and tsunamis.

Image source: https://zulkarnainhassan.com/2022/01/30/types-of-floods-fluvial-pluvial-and-coastal-floods/ 

FLOPRES and IoT Mitigation: In coastal regions, FLOPRES integrates IoT sensor data to monitor tide levels and windstorm patterns. This information is crucial for predicting storm surges. The project uses this data to enhance coastal flood models, considering factors like windstorm characteristics and regional topography. This predictive capability is essential for preparing for potential floods and implementing effective coastal defenses.

The integration of FLOPRES and IoT water level sensors offers a comprehensive approach to understanding and mitigating different types of floods. From riverine and pluvial to coastal floods, this combination of advanced technology and strategic planning is key to enhancing flood resilience and protecting communities from the devastating impacts of these natural disasters.


FLOPRES project proposes an integrated solution to support flood modeling, forecasting, early warnings, integration and analysis of multimodal data both for authorities responsible for water and emergency management at all levels and private persons who might be impacted by the consequences of climate change-related hazardous events. Our intention is also to raise awareness of the public and various stakeholders on a nature-based solution to adapt to climate change and make local communities and authorities work together efficiently under the same objective.

Our project members come from a variety of backgrounds and bring unique skills and perspectives to the table: iESPRIT, GOSPACE LABS, icmMETEO, Prešov Self-Governing Region, Marr



  1. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/3572360.stm 
  2. https://zulkarnainhassan.com/2022/01/30/types-of-floods-fluvial-pluvial-and-coastal-floods/
  3. https://afb.accuweather.com/blog/different-types-of-flooding-and-the-impacts-on-businesses
  4. https://flopres.eu